Vector algebra and vector differentiation are used to describe the motion of objects and 3D motion mechanics are treated in depth. Diagrams and software-created sequences are used to illustrate human movement. Read more Read less. Review From the reviews: "This book represents a very ambitious undertaking of providing, in a single volume, a comprehensive exposition of the kinematics and dynamics governing the motion of the human body as well as a complete course of general mechanics. No customer reviews. Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review.
Most helpful customer reviews on Amazon. July 30, - Published on Amazon. Verified Purchase. This book kinda skims along the basics of human body dynamics. It worked really well for my class, a mechanical engineering elective. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure. Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. Returning user. Request Username Can't sign in? Forgot your username? Enter your email address below and we will send you your username.
However, to fully understand Lyapunov stability properties of human movement, fundamental knowledge about the feedback loops which are active during human locomotion would be required and would have to be included in the model, but it is not available yet. Modeling the human response to unpredictable changes in the environment in terms of a hybrid dynamic system has so far been an unsolved task see Bruijn et al.
Human Body Dynamics - Classical Mechanics and Human Movement | Aydin Tözeren | Springer
Other approaches which have been widely used in both clinical applications and the research community working on humanoid robotics derive control laws based on ground reference points which require a minimal amount of computational effort to be obtained and can be evaluated in real-time Popovic et al. Other ground reference points which consider the velocities of the bipedal walker enable to explain foot placement and fall prevention as a response to sudden pushes Pratt and Tedrake However, in our context, this approach is only applicable for static poses or quasi-static motions and is not feasible for describing the stability of dynamic bipedal motions such as human walking.
A very popular approach to stability in bipedal locomotion is based on the Zero Moment Point ZMP , introduced by Vukobratovic and Branislav , which is defined as the ground reference point in which the resulting horizontal moments from the inertial and gravitational forces of the bipedal system vanish. In case the bipedal system does not slip and no other external forces than the ground reaction forces act on it the ZMP coincides with the Center of Pressure CoP.
Maintaining the ZMP within the borders of a subset of the BoS has been used by various projects to control the walking motion of a humanoid robot e.
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However, this approach leads to very conservative motions which do not resemble the dynamic appearance of human gait. In fact, human walking is characterized by ZMP locations very close to the borders of the actual BoS. In addition, the ZMP only reflects the current state of the system and does not provide any meaningful information to predict falls. This work focuses on describing the human foot placement strategy in terms of the velocity-based Capture Point CaP , introduced by Pratt et al.
The Capture Point indicates the foot location which should be anticipated after a push to come to complete stop.
Human Body Dynamics Classical Mechanics And Human Movement
It considers the minimum time required to perform a step as well as the step's maximum reachable distance and has been implemented in the gait control of humanoid robots in Englsberger et al. Furthermore, based on the Capture Point, strategies to adapt temporo-spatial gait parameters to varying environmental conditions and asymmetric step lengths in transtibial prosthetic gait have been associated with functional compensation strategies in order to reduce the risk of falling backwards in Hak et al.
In addition, this work considers the Angular Momentum applied by the human walkers about the center of mass. It has been observed by Herr and Popovic that during straight and upright walking the average angular momentum about the principal axes remains close to zero. As discussed in Mombaur and Vallery , the oscillations of the angular momentum around zero, even though small, are not small enough to be ignored and are contributing to the nature of walking, which is also in accordance with the observation of the virtual pivot point located above the center of mass see Maus et al.
In this work, we discuss different benchmarking criteria for their applicability to quantify the stability of bipedal locomotion. We propose a combined assessment of bipedal gait based on an extension of the Capture Point as well as the full body angular momentum as a benchmarking tool for human walking.
The application of this method is demonstrated by computing data for two unimpaired subjects and one subject walking with a prosthesis.
We hypothesize that, in order to maintain a steadily stable walking motion, the desired foot location approached by unimpaired humans while moving the swing leg forward is correlated to the Instantaneous Capture Point Pratt et al. Furthermore, we conjecture that humans with deviating habitual gait patterns, asymmetric body properties or limb replacements aim at a similar stability strategy by adjusting their gait dynamics according to the modified dynamic and actuatory properties.
This implies that a symmetric foot placement strategy is maintained by applying asymmetric gait dynamics. In order to analyze human gait for these strategies we reconstruct the dynamics of the human walking motion from motion data obtained in a gait laboratory.
Introducing the Residual Orbital Energy , we are able to simultaneously analyze the reconstructed motions for the underlying whole-body dynamics as well as the foot placement strategy with respect to the Instantaneous Capture Point. The application of the proposed method results in distinguishable gait dynamics for impaired and unimpaired humans with symmetric and asymmetric body proportions leading to the common objective, namely to move the swing leg toward the Instantaneous Capture Point.
In order to validate the method, however, walking motions of many more subjects need to be investigated. In this paper, we present a first study of the proposed benchmarking criteria. This includes their evaluation on existing walking data of a few subjects—two unimpaired subjects and one subject with a prosthesis—as a first indicator on the performance of the proposed method. A large statistical analysis of the benchmarking criteria is beyond the scope of this paper and will be subject of our future work.
The dynamics of the subjects' walking motion are reconstructed from recorded motion capture data using individualized multibody models of the subjects and optimal control methods in a least-squares sense. This approach ensures that the dynamics of the model are satisfied throughout the entire time horizon rather than only on discrete time steps.
Rigid body dynamics
Based on the reconstructed motions, the whole-body dynamics as well as the temporo-spatial gait parameters are compared between the subjects. The analysis focuses on the behavior of the ICaP for each subject and, in particular, on the characteristics of each subject's foot placement with respect to the ICaP right at the heel strike event. The recordings include a full stride beginning with the toe off of the left foot of three subjects: A an unimpaired female subject, B an unimpaired male subject as well as C a male subject walking unilaterally with a transfemoral prosthesis on the right side.
Some characteristics of the subjects are included in Table 1. The kinematic part of the walking motion of the subjects has been recorded using marker-based motion capturing. Figure 1. Subjects in the motion capture laboratory: A Unimpaired female, B Unimpaired male, C Male walking with a transfemoral prosthesis on the right side.
All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki for the publication of their identifiable image. The subjects' gait has been recorded at self-selected walking speeds. The gait appearance of the unimpaired subjects can be considered healthy, symmetric and without any physical limitations. The impaired subject has been individually fitted with a prosthetic knee which also includes a customized socket and appropriately selected prosthetic components. His gait appears smooth and symmetric. The human body is modeled as a segment multibody model with 34 degrees of freedom DoFs.
The absolute translation and orientation of the entire system with respect to the global frame in Euclidean space is defined by the six DoFs for the absolute translation and orientation of the pelvis segment. The model is based on the segment multibody model with 43 DoFs illustrated in Figure 2. Hence, zero DoFs are assumed between the middle and upper trunk as well as between the lower arms and the hands, respectively, and the model can be reduced to the model used in this study.
The dynamic model parameters for all subjects were obtained using the regression equations provided by de Leva In addition, the dynamic model parameters for the prosthetic leg have been obtained by simple experiments involving scaling, balancing and oscillating the prosthesis. The model establishes ground contact with the feet which are represented by rigid triangular segments spanned by the three contact points heel, hallux and meta5 as shown in Figure 3. Figure 2. Multibody models of the full human body: A Full human body with segment COM positions and local coordinate frames, B Full human body with transfemoral prosthesis yellow.
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Foot model with the three contact points hallux, meta5 , and heel. Depending on the current gait phase, the mechanical system described above is subject to changing contact properties and can be described by a set of differential algebraic equations. For non-redundant constraints g q the contact Jacobian G q has full rank and 3 can be uniquely solved. The transition is determined by.