VOC Emissions from Wastewater Treatment Plants: Characterization, Control and Compliance

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Roper 's professional experience includes senior management positions in the U. Department of Transportation, U. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Army.

Roper was recently appointed to the new National Academies Committee on the Protection of Critical Transportation Infrastructure and selected to chair the sub-committee on Technology Research, Development and Deployment. He has authored more than technical papers and delivered numerous presentations to national and international audiences. He is also President and Founder of Roper and Associates, a Virginia Corporation created to provide engineering and environmental consulting services to the global community.

The deep pond system was a wastewater project completed in in Hyderabad, India.

Sewage treatment & disposal

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For example, for each of the WTP facilities with which we are currently involved, our emissions-measurement field work has allowed us to represent the entire plant as a collection of nearly individual source components, each with unique emission factors. These emission factors, in turn, are then used as input to a dispersion model to assess off-site compliance with applicable H2S standards. With this level of precision, through an iterative process, the combination of controls minimally necessary for each source sub-area to achieve compliance can be identified precisely.

In this manner, huge savings are realized by strictly avoiding the costly over-engineering of emissions controls. Others have attempted to use flux chambers placed over the process area sources to characterize H2S emissions for input to the dispersion model. We consider this method to be generally infeasible, first because of the heterogeneous nature of the emissions and the resultant inability to properly address data-representative considerations, and second because of a variety of complex analytical considerations.

It is our experience that the "area-source technique" as modified for use with point monitors is the best method to accurately estimate H2S emissions from WTP process-area sources. This technique is applicable to all area-type sources, i.

It involves identification of a source "attribution" based on a series of near-ground 1m height upwind and downwind measurements, and the subsequent back-calculation of emission rates based on Gaussian dispersion relationships inherent in most USEPA Guideline models e. In addition to the source-attribution information, coincident on-site measurements of wind speed, wind direction, and atmospheric stability are required.

The area-source technique was originally developed for use with some type of optical remote sensing ORS technology, such as open-path Fourier-transform infrared FTIR or ultraviolet UV spectroscopy. This is because open-path spectroscopy directly generates the source-attribution information in the required path-integrated form directly. Because H2S is a poor IR and UV absorber, however, a point-monitoring approach had to be employed to allow simulation of the path-integrated concentration representation.

The annex lists a number of measures spanning a range of costs and efficiencies. The choice of measures for any particular case will depend on a number of factors, including economic circumstances, technological infrastructure and any existing VOC control implemented.

Book Description

This annex does not, in general, take into account the specific species of VOC emitted by the different sources, but deals with best available technologies for VOC reduction. When measures are planned for some sources, it is worthwhile to consider giving priority to those activities which emit reactive rather than non-reactive VOCs e. However, when such compound-specific measures are designed, other effects on the environment e.

The major sources of anthropogenic non-methane VOC emissions from stationary sources are the following: a Use of solvents; b Petroleum industry including petroleum-product handling; c Organic chemical industry; d Small-scale combustion sources e. The order of the list reflects the general importance of the sources subject to the uncertainties of emission inventories. The distribution of VOC emissions according to different sources depends greatly on the fields of activity within the territory of any particular Party.

There are several possibilities for the control or prevention of VOC emissions. The following list gives a general outline of measures available, which may be implemented either singly or in combination: a Substitution of VOCs; e. The monitoring of abatement procedures is necessary to ensure that appropriate control measures and practices are properly implemented for an effective reduction of VOC emissions.


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Monitoring of abatement procedures will include: a The development of an inventory of those VOC-emission reduction measures, identified above, that have already been implemented; b The characterization and quantification of VOC emissions from relevant sources by instrumental or other techniques; c Periodic auditing of abatement measures implemented to ensure their continued efficient operation; d Regularly scheduled reporting on a , b and c , using harmonized procedures, to regulatory authorities; e Comparison, with the objectives of the Protocol, of VOC-emission reductions achieved in practice.

Illustrative cost figures should also be based on process-specific parameters, e. Cost-efficient strategy considerations should be based on total costs per year including capital and operational costs. VOC-emission reduction costs should also be considered within the framework of the overall process economics, e.

The major categories of available control techniques for VOC abatement are summarized in table 1. Those techniques chosen for inclusion in the table have been successfully applied commercially and are now well established. For the most part, they have been applied generally across sectors. Sector-specific techniques, including the limitation of the solvent content of products, are given in sections IV and V.

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Care should be taken to ensure that the implementation of these control techniques does not create other environmental problems. If incineration has to be used, it should be combined with energy recovery, where appropriate. Another common procedure for destroying non-halogenated VOCs is to use VOC-laden gas streams as secondary air or fuel in existing energy-conversion units. However, this usually requires site-specific process modifications and therefore it too is excluded from the following table.

Solid Waste Treatment - BioLargo Engineering

Data on efficiency are derived from operational experience and are considered to reflect the capabilities of current installations. Cost data are more subject to uncertainty due to interpretation of costs, accountancy practices and site-specific conditions. Therefore the data provided are case-specific.

They cover the cost ranges for the different techniques. The costs do, however, accurately reflect the relationships between the costs of the different techniques. Differences in costs between new and retrofit applications may in some cases be significant but do not differ sufficiently to change the order in table 1.

Hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission characterization of sewage treatment facilities in Korea

The choice of a control technique will depend on parameters such as the concentration of VOCs in the raw gas, gas volume flow, the type of VOCs, and others. Therefore, some overlap in the fields of application may occur; in that case, the most appropriate technique must be selected according to case-specific conditions. In this section, each VOC-emitting sector is characterized by a table containing the main emission sources, control measures including the best available technologies, their specific reduction efficiency and the related costs.

An estimate is also provided of the overall potential within each sector for reducing its VOC emissions. The maximum reduction potential refers to situations in which only a low level of control is in place. Process-specific reduction efficiencies should not be confused with the figures given for the reduction potential of each sector.

The former are technical feasibilities, while the latter take into account the likely penetration and other factors affecting each sector. Costs depend on capacity, site-specific factors, accountancy practices and other factors. Consequently, costs may vary greatly, therefore, only qualitative information medium, low, high is provided, referring to comparison of costs of different technologies mentioned for specific applications.

Industrial use of solvents The industrial use of solvents is in many countries the biggest contributor to VOC emissions from stationary sources.

ISBN 13: 9781566768207

Main sectors and control measures, including best available technologies and reduction efficiencies, are listed in table 2, and the best available technology is specified for each sector. There may be differences between small and large or new and old plants. For this reason, the estimated overall reduction potential quoted is below the values implied in table 2. A further step to reduce episodic ozone formation potential can include the reformulation of the remaining solvents.

With respect to the industrial use of solvents, three approaches can in principle be used: a product-oriented approach which, for instance, leads to a reformulation of the product paint, degreasing products, etc. For some industrial uses of solvents only a product-oriented approach is available in the case of painting constructions, painting buildings, the industrial use of cleaning products, etc. In all other cases, the product-oriented approach deserves priority, inter alia, because of the positive spin-off effects on the solvent emission of the manufacturing industry.

Furthermore, the environmental impact of emissions can be reduced by combining best available technology with product reformulation to replace solvents by less harmful alternatives.

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